U Rwanda Ruzubakwa n'Amaboko y'Abana Barwo Bose

U Rwanda Rurindiye Uburumbuke ku Nkomo

By Sharon Broussard, The Plain Dealer, 29 Mutarama 2012

Sharon Broussard, The Plain Dealer

Sharon Broussard, The Plain Dealer

Sharon Broussard ni umwanditsi wungirije w’Ijambo ry’ibanze mu kinyamakuru The Plain Dealer. Ni umwe mu banditsi n’abatozankino12 b’Abanyamerika bagendereye uRwanda mu Gushyingo 2011, biturutse ku nkunga Gatekeeper igenerwa abanyamakuru, ikaba ikusanywa n’Umushinga w’Itaramakuru Mpuzamahanga wo muri Kaminuza Johns Hopkins.

U Rwanda ruzwi cyane nk’igihugu cyivanye mu muyonga w’amarorerwa ya jenoside yo muri Mata 1994, kandi nk’igihugu cya Afurika kiranganwa imbaduko n’umwete, aho kumenyekanishwa na jenoside yagushije isi yose mu kayubi igihe ihitana ibitambo biyinga ibihumbi 800.
Abatutsi n’Abahutu bashyira mu gaciro batsembwe n’abaturanyi babo n’amatsinda y’insoresore nyuma y’aho itangazamakuru rishishikarije abaturage kwikiza “Inyenzi”.
Nyamara icyo gihugu cyo mu burasirazuba bw’Afurika gitsikamiwe n’ubukene gishobora no kuba cyugarijwe na kabutindi.
Ku butegetsi bwiganje mo n’Abatutsi bahoze ari impunzi hanyuma bakaza kunesha ingabo n’insoresore z’Abahutu b’abicanyi, ingufu uRwanda rwimbitse mu guhangira abaturage barwo ubuzima busumbije ho kuba bwiza zapfubijwe n’umunigo ukabije wakanyaze ubwisanzure bw’ibitekerezo, ziyoyokera kandi mu gucubya ibirego bishinja Guverinoma gucira ishyanga abatikiriza iyo itera, abandi ikabata mu kagozi cyangwa se ikabakata amajosi.
Nk’uko itsinda ry’abanditsi b’amakuru n’abatozankuru b’Abanyamerika babiteye imboni mu rugendo baherutse mo barukesheje Umushinga w’Itaramakuru Mpuzamahana wo muri Kaminuza Johns Hopkins, uRwanda rushobora kuba rukataje mu majyambere, ariko ubusumbane bukabije n’amacakubiri ashingiye ku moko – Abanyarwanda batemerewe kugira icyo bavuga ho – birarukwegera amajyanyuma.

Abatutsi bizimbye mu cyiciro cy’abayobozi b’uRwanda bagize ibice 15% by’abaturage, n’ubwo ubutegetsi bwa cyami ntutsi bwamaze igihe kirekire mu Rwanda, bukaza gushyigikirwa mbere na mbere n’Abadage, hanyuma bukimakazwa n’abakoroni b’Ababirigi. Abahutu bafite ubwiganze bw’ibice biyinga 84%.
Nyamara nta makimbirane ashingiye ku moko twigeze tubona mu gihe twazengurukaga muri icyo gihugu cy’imisozi miremire, gihora gitoshye, gituwe n’abanyagihugu miriyoni 11, ariko kandi kitagira irembo ku mazi magari. Ibihingwa ngengabukungu by’ingenzi byoherezwa mu mahanga ni ikawa n’icyayi, kandi ibihaboneka cyane cyane ni iby’ubuhinzi- bworozi bwa mbonandamuka.
Insina zera utuneke duto turyohera twa kamaramasenge – twaturyaga buri gitondo – imyembe n’ibishyimbo bihingwa hafi muri buri murima wo mu cyaro, ndetse no ku misozi yaciwe ho indinganire zikoranye ubugenge. N’ubwo kandi ubona yo umubare w’imodoka uciriritse, amagare atabarika ndetse n’amapikipiki, abantu benshi bagera iyo bajya bagenjeje amaguru.
Kandi icyo gihugu kirajya mbere no mu bundi buryo bunyuranye.
Nk’uko twabibwiwe na Ririyane Uwanziga Mupende, ukuriye Ubuyobozi bw’igishushanyo cy’imigi n’ubwubatsi muri guverinoma y’uRwanda, ngo “Uva mu gihugu amezi abiri cyangwa atatu wagaruka ugasanga buri gihe hariyongereye ho ikintu gishya.”
Kuva ku munsi wa mbere tugitangira gusura Kigali, umurwa w’uRwanda, umusemuzi wacu Fred Mwasa yatubaruriye inyubako nshya zose – hari mo isoko rishya rya kijyambere n’amazu mashya menshi y’ibiro yazamuriwe icyarimwe – atibagiwe no kutwereka n’amazu y’ibiti atabarika Guverinoma yateganyije gusenya kugira ngo abise inyubako za kijyambere.
Yemwe n’ikibuga cy’indege mpuzamahanga cy’i Kigali cyo mu rwego ruciriritse ariko kirinzwe ku buryo bukomeye, kizasimburwa n’igishya cyubakwa mu Bugesera mu majyepfo ya Kigali, bateganya ko kizatangira gukoreshwa mu mwaka wa 2015. Ibyo twabibwiwe n’umushoferi Mwasa ushinzwe n’ubuyobozi bw’ikinyamakuru cyigenga gishya The Chronicles gitangarizwa i Kigali.
Ngo ibyo biri mu mugambi “Rwanda Icyerekezo 2020” uzahindura icyo gihugu cy’abahinzi-borozi ukakigira isangano ry’ikoranabuhanga mu itumanaho n’iry’ubwikorezi mu karere biturutse ku bwitange bw’abakozi babangikanyije ubumenyi n’ubushobozi.

Urubyiruko rumara imyaka cyenda mu ishuri rwigira ubuntu. Buri wese kandi ategetswe kugira ubwishingizi bwo kwivuza.
Igitekerezo kigaragara ni uko, niba ubwato bwose butsimburiwe icyarimwe, amacakubiri y’amoko amaze igihe mu Rwanda atazatuma burohama.
Nyamara ariko hafi buri mukozi wa Reta wese twahuraga yabaga ari Umututsi wize wari warahungiye i Bugande cyangwa ahandi hari umutekano mbere y’itsembambaga ryo mu wa 1994, hanyuma yagaruka mu guhabwa akazi agashyirwa i Gorora.
Mbese izinga nk’iryo risa n’iriheza abandi rishobora gushyira ho guverinoma buri wese yisanga mo kandi idahungabana, ndetse rikubaka igihugu gishobora kuba ipfundo n’isangano by’uburumbuke muri Afurika y’Uburasirazuba?

Perezida Pawuro Kagame, jenerari wari ukuriye izahoze ari inyeshyamba z’Abatutsi, akayobora FPR-Inkotanyi mu ntambara yirukanye mu gihugu ingabo n’insoresore z’Abahutu guhera mu mwaka wa 1994 akanafata ubutegetsi kuva icyo gihe, yemera ko ibyo bishoboka.
Yabwiye ikipi yacu y’abanyamakuru ati “Igihugu kiragerageza kubona umwanya mwiza, niba ari ko nabivuga, mu Muryango w’Afurika y’Uburasirazuba dushobora gukorera mo ibintu cyangwa kugemura mo ibintu bitaboneka mu bindi bihugu.”
Kagame yibasiye ruswa ashyira ku runyiriri itangwa ry’impushya zo kubaka no gushora imari ari uburyo bwo kureshya abashoramari n’abaherwe bo mu mahanga ngo baze mu Rwanda. Birasa nk’aho ari mo kugera kuri izo ntego. Ubungubu uRwanda ruza ku mwanya wa 45 ku bihugu 183 Banki y’Isi yakoreye raporo ishingiye ku ngingo y’”Ishoramari mu mwaka wa 2012.”

Ba rwiyemezamirimo bashobora gutangiza imishinga yabo mu minsi itatu gusa. Igihugu gifite isuku – bitewe n’abakozi akangari bazinduka bakubura imihanda yo mu mujyi kuva mu masaamoya -, kandi kiri mo umutekano. Kuyembagira muri Kigali isaatatu cyangwa isaayine z’ijoro ntabwo ari ukwiyahura cyangwa kwigereza ho – ibi bikaba bitandukanye cyane n’ibyo mu migi irangwa mo akavuyo yo muri Kongo no mu Bugande, ibihugu bituranye n’uRwanda.

Nyamara urunyiriri ruboneka mu Rwanda rushobora kuba ruturuka ku giporisi n’igisirikari byakwirakwijwe hafi ahantu hose, ari nako bihoza abaturage ku cyoba n’inkeke. Koko rero, ubwo umushoferi wacu mutarutinya bamuhagaritse kubera ko yagerageje guca ku yindi modoka ku gihanama, umusirikari yaje anyenyemba umukoba w’imbunda utendera mu ijosi rye.
Amaze kubwira umushoferi wacu amagambo akarishye mu kinyarwanda, ururimi Bantu rukoreshwa kenshi n’ubwo icyongereza ari rwo rurimi rwo mu butegetsi, uwo musirikari yaramuretse yikomereza atamuhaye itike. Nyuma y’ubwo ariko umushoferi wacu yarushije ho gutwarana ubwitonzi.
Nyamara ibyo si cyo kintu cyonyine cyo mu Rwanda giteye ubwoba. Ubwisanzure bwo kuvuga icyo utekereza bwatawe ku munigo, ibinyamakuru – bimwe muri byo byashikikarije abicanyi gukora jenoside – biracyafitiwe amakenga menshi. Ni cyo gitera ubutegetsi kuzibya abataramakuru, abatangazamakuru n’Abanyarwanda basanzwe.

Abanyarwanda baramutse bakomoje ku by’ubuhutu n’ubututsi baba bikatiye imyaka myinshi y’igifungo – ubungubu ngo buri wese ni Umunyarwanda gusa – kandi ngo ni ukurenga ku itegeko kugira icyo unenga perezida cyangwa abandi bategetsi.
Cya cyago cya jenoside itegeko ryabatije ngo “jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi”, ryirengagije ibihumbi n’ibihumbi by’Abahutu, benshi muri bo bari barashyingiranwe n’Abatutsi cyangwa se babavuganiraga, bahitanwe n’iryo tsembatsemba.

Guca kuri ayo mategeko, yemwe no gusa n’ubitekereza, byakatiye abantu imyaka myinshi y’igifungo, ndetse n’abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi barahotorwa, nk’uko bitangazwa n’imiryango iharanira uburenganzira bwa Muntu, ariko nyamara guverinoma ikaba yarakomeje guhangaza ibihakana.
Yemwe n’abahunze ubwo butegetsi ntibiringiye umutekano. Urugero ruri hafi ni urwa Jenerari Fawusitini Kayumba Nyamwasa wahoze ari icyegera cya Kagame, wareze shebuja kurya ruswa no kunyereza umutungo, hanyuma akaza guhungira muri Afurika y’Epfo muri Gashyantare 2010. Nyuma y’amezi ane ageze yo bamwoherereje abicanyi bo kumuhotora.

Haravugwa ibyo kuvugurura amategeko agenga itangazamakuru, ariko bishobora kuzaza ari impitagihe, bitakirenganuye Anyesi Nkusi, umwanditsi mukuru w’ikinyamakuru Umurabyo, wakatiwe imyaka 17 y’igifungo muri Gashyantare y’umwaka ushize kubera ko yatangaje imyandiko ivuga ko Abanyarwanda bamwe batari bishimiye perezida n’abandi bategetsi bo muri guverinoma. Abashinjacyaha banasabiye igifungo cy’imyaka irindwi mugenzi we w’umunyamakuru, bamushinja ko imyandiko ye yari gutera abaturage kwigomeka ku butegetsi.
Kagame usa n’uwatwawe na “Twitter” yayigiriye ho ikiganiro n’ikipi yacu maze aratubwira ngo niba ari we byarebaga nta n’uwakagombye guhanwa “kabone n’iyo yaba yavuze nabi” perezida, ariko kandi ngo agomba “kureka ibyo bintu bikagenda uko byakagiye”. Nyamara ibyo byaba ari ugukorana ubuzirampuhwe, urebye ko iyo mvugo isobanura ko Nkusi yazagomba kuborera muri gereza.
Kagame afite umwanya, mbere y’amatora yo mu wa 2017, wo kugaragaza niba ashaka koko gukorera uRwanda ibyiza cyangwa se niba ibyo byose ari amirariro cyangwa agasaku gusa.

Nyuma ya manda ze ebyiri ashobora guzasezera – nk’uko na we ari ko abisezeranya abantu. Cyangwa se ashobora kuzabona abo mu ishyaka rye bifuza kuzongera mu itegekonshinga ingingo yemera manda eshatu, bityo akazongera kwiyamamaza.
“Umwaka wa 2017 ntuzarangira nkiri perezida”, ibyo ni we wabitwibwiriye ku buryo butaziguye.
Ariko bamwe mu banyamakuru twari kumwe ntibabyemeye.
Kandi mpereye no ku byo niboneye mu minsi 10 namaze mu gihugu, nshobora kuvuga ntibeshye cyane yuko n’Abanyarwanda benshi batabyemera.

(Byahinduwe mu kinyarwanda na Munyakazi Leopold)

Inkuru Bifitanye isano:
A restrained Rwanda hopes for prosperity: Sharon Broussard

Byavuye: http://www.cleveland.com/opinion/index.ssf/2012/01/a_restrained_rwanda_hopes_for.html

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