Rwanda/Jenoside: Bamwe bazibuka bose, abandi bibuke bamwe. Uburyo « kwibuka » bikorwa mu Bubiligi biratanga sura ki, isomo rihe?
U Rwanda Ruzubakwa n'Amaboko y'Abana Barwo Bose

Rwanda/Jenoside: Bamwe bazibuka bose, abandi bibuke bamwe. Uburyo « kwibuka » bikorwa mu Bubiligi biratanga sura ki, isomo rihe?

Kuki abanyarwanda bakomeje kubusanya ku Mateka bahuriyeho ? U Rwanda ruzategereza igisekuru cy’ubutaha, kugira ngo abana barwo bavuge Amateka amwe ku gihugu cyabo? Kuki bidashoboka uyu munsi? Ni kuki isura y’ikibazo nyirizina ijya ku karubanda by’umwihariko mu gihugu cy’Ububiligi? Mbere yo kwinjira mu ngingo ikubiye mu mutwe w’iyi nyandiko, ni byiza kubanza kwibukiranya ibintu by’ingenzi bifite aho bihuriye na jenoside cyane cyane ku gihugu nk’u Rwanda. Ni ngombwa gusobanukirwa neza icyo jenoside bivuga. Jenoside ireba abanyarwanda yemejwe ryari yemejwe na nde?  Byagenze bite ngo yongererwe icyuzuzo cyangwa indango (le qualificatif)? Impaka cyangwa ibyo abanyarwanda batavugaho rumwe muri iki gihe bishingiye kuki? Ukuri ni ukuhe?

Jenoside ni iki?

Nk’uko inzobere, ndetse n’Umuryango w’Abibumbye, LONI, ubisobanura, jenoside ni icyaha cy’ubwicanyi bugambiriwe, bukibasira abantu bitewe n’icyo baricyo, hagamijwe kubarimbura bose cyangwa igice cyabo, byaba bishingiye ku bwoko, idini, cyangwa aho bakomoka. Jenoside iba igamije kuvanaho (gutsemba), cyangwa se kubuza abantu runaka kongera kororoka bitewe gusa n’icyo baricyo. Ubwo bwicanyi buhitana abakuru n’abana, bukanahitana ibitsina byombi. Nk’uko bigaragargara, ni icyaha gikubiyemo ubugome bw’indengakamere, aho igice cy’abantu runaka gicirirwa gukenyuka kubera gusa ziriya mpamvu zivuzwe hejuru bahuriyeho. Mu gisobanuro cya jenoside, hanongerwamo ko ari igikorwa gitegurwa (planification).

Mu rwego rwo gukumira iki cyaha ndengakamere, Umuryango LONI, warushijeho kwerekana ibimenyetso bikiranga mu masezerano mpuzamahanga yo ku itariki ya 9 Ukuboza 1948, mu ngingo ya kabiri hagira hati :

« jenoside irangwa n’igikorwa cyose kigamije kurimbura hashingiwe ku cyo abantu bahuriyeho (ubwoko, idini, inkomoko, …) kabone n’iyo byaba ari ukurimbura igice kimwe cy’abo bantu. Jenoside igerwaho binyuze mu bikorwa bikurikira byibasira igice cy’abantu runaka:

-Ubwicanyi

– Kuzahaza umubiri, cyangwa iyozabwonko ritesha abantu gutekereza, ntibabashe gukoresha neza ubwenge bwabo

-Gupyinagaza no gutuma bantu bakurikira buhumyi ugira ngo ubakoreshe icyo wishakiye

-Kugira abantu ingumba cyangwa kubabuza kubyara bitewe n’icyo baricyo

– Kwigarurira abana b’igice runaka, bakagabirwa abandi

Cyakora hari impaka hagati y’inzobere mu mategeko ku gisobanuro cyagutse cy’ijambo jenoside, ndetse hari n’abatemera ibisobanuro bijya kure y’inyito ihinnye. Ni ho usanga, abantu badashyira mu rwego rwa jenoside, ubwicanyi bwakozwe na ba Staline, Mao, Pol Pot cyangwa ba Mengistu kuko ngo ubwo bwicanyi ndengakamere bwari bushingiye ku bakora politiki, abakoraga mu nzego izi n’izi cyangwa ngo bikaba byari bishingiye ku mibereho runaka y’abantu. Hagati aho, byakwitwa jenoside, bitakwitwa yo, byose ni ibikorwa by’ubunyamaswa bidakwiye ikiremwamuntu.

Jenoside yemezwa ite ? Yemezwa na nde ?

Nk’uko bisobanurwa n’amasezerano mpuzamahanga yo gukumira no guhana icyaha cya jenoside, Urukiko rubifitiye ububasha ni rwo rushobora kwemeza ko icyaha runaka ari jenoside. LONI ubwayo, si yo yemeza jenoside, dore ko nta n’imirimo muri LONI igenewe kwemeza ikintu nk’icyo. Cyakora hari inzego zishyirwaho na LONI zishobora kugira icyo zivuga ku bibazo nk’iki, nk’uko bishobora no gukorwa n’inzego z’ubutabera mu gihugu iki n’iki ariko zigashingira ku mahameremezo yavuzwe na LONI. Ni muri ubwo buryo LONI yashyizeho Urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha (CPI, Cour pénale internationale) rufite icyicaro i La Haye mu Buholande. Uretse uru rukiko, ni no muri ubwo buryo hari ibihugu bifite inkiko zifite ububasha bwo gukurikirana ibyaha ndengakamere nk’icya jenoside. Umuntu yavuga nk’Ubufaransa, Ububiligi, Ubusuwisi, Ubuholandi, Kanada n’ibindi.

Ariya masezerano mpuzamahanga avuzwe hejuru, asobanura ko kubera uburemere bwa jenoside, nta muntu n’umwe ufite ubudahangarwa, yaba umuyobozi, yaba uyoborwa, kandi kiriya cyaha, ni icyaha kidasaza.

Ku bireba u Rwanda, mu rwego mpuzamahanga, jenoside yavuzweho na Komisiyo ishinzwe uburenganzira bwa muntu muri LONI tariki ya 28 Kamena 1994. By’umwihariko, iyo jenoside yemejwe n’Urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha ku Rwanda, rwashyizweho na LONI mu mwanzuro N°955watowe n’Akanama ka LONI gashinzwe umutekano ku isi ku itariki ya 08 Ugushyingo 1994. Uru rukiko ni na rwo rwashimangiye icyaha cya jenoside cyakorewe mu Rwanda, mu rubanza rwa Jean Paul Akayezu, tariki ya 2 Nzeli 1998, ubwo rwamuhamyaga jenoside. Cyakora byafashe igihe kinini kugira ngo mu rwego mpuzamahanga bive ku nyito ya jenoside nyarwanda (génocide rwandais), bigere kuri jenoside yakorewe abatutsi (Génocide perpétré contre les Tutsi). Mu mwanzuro N°2150 wo ku itariki ya 16 Mata 2014 (ni ukuvuga nyuma y’imyaka isaga 20), nibwo LONI yatangiye gukoresha inyito y’iki gihe. Hagati aho, ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda na bwo, bwahindaguye kenshi inyito y’iki cyaha, bikaba bituma abantu babibona nk’ikimenyetso cy’imyumvire iteye urujijo. Habanje gukoreshwa « Itsembatsemba n’itsembabwoko », nyuma abategetsi basaba ko hakoreshwa ijambo « Itsembabwoko »,  bidateye kabiri bati dukoreshe « jenoside », noneho ahagana mu w’2009, bemeza ko hakoreshwa inyito: « jenoside yakorewe abatutsi ». Hari abavuga ko, uko inyito yagiye ihindurwa, byatanze isura kuri bamwe ko hari inzirakarengane zishwe zavanywe mu nyito nyrizina. Ibintu nk’ibi na byo bifite uburemere, ku buryo kumenya ukuri kwabyo, no kukumvikanaho, bisaba ko abanyarwanda bicarana bagasasa inzobe.

Umuhakanyi wa jenoside (négationniste) arangwa ni iki? Gupfobya jenoside byo bivuga iki?

Uhakana jenoside ni uwemeza ko itabaye kandi yarabaye. Gupfobya jenoside ni ukatayiha uburemere ikwiye. Urugero, nk’uwashaka kuyigereranya n’urupfu rw’abagwa ku rugamba bahanganye mu ntambara. Hagati aho, hari abibutsa ko, hari igihe abanditsi cyangwa abatanga ibitekerezo batwerererwa kuba « négationnistes » bitewe gusa no kutabona ibintu kimwe n’abanyabubasha bari ku butegetsi. Ni gute umuntu wemera ko habayeho jenoside yakorewe abatutsi, bahindukira bakamwita « négationniste »? Abakurikiranira hafi ibikorwa by’ubwicanyi ndengakamere bwakorewe abanyarwanda bigambiriwe (barimo umubiligi Filip Reyntjens) bemeza ko « négationistes » ari abahakana jenoside yakorewe abatutsi ikozwe n’intagondwa z’interahamwe na bamwe mu basirikare ba ex-FAR. Abo kandi, banongeraho ko iyo nyito (négationistes) ikwiye no guhabwa abahakana ubwicanyi bwibasiye inyokomuntu, ubwicanyi ndengakamere bwakorewe abahutu bigambiriwe haba mu Rwanda haba no muri Kongo, bikozwe n’ingabo za APR zari zikuriwe na Jenerali Paul Kagame. Ubu bwicanyi « mapping report » ya LONI ikaba ivuga ko Urukiko rubifitiye ububasha rushobora kwemeza ko ari jenoside ruhereye ku bimenyetso bitangwamo.

Komeza usome inkuru yose hano >>>>>>>>>>

Umunyarwanda

Niba ushaka kwohererezwa emails z'ibyandikwa kuri Rwandinfo mu Kinyarwanda,
Injiza email yawe hano:

Bitangwa na FeedBurner

Speak Your Mind

*